The Fourteen Chapters
The Constitution is a document of over 100 pages and has 243 sections. The text was carefully constructed, word by word, phrase by phrase and paragraph by paragraph. While many of us understand the importance of this document, its meaning remains abstract because few of us have sat down and read the entire text. This chapter by chapter overview of the Constitution allows us to understand the architecture of the Constitution at a glance. For those who wish to read more, there is further information provided in each section on each of the 14 chapters of our Constitution.
Select a chapter to learn more
The most profound values and foundational provisions of the Constitution are set out in chapter 1 of the Constitution. This chapter enshrines key values such as dignity, non-racialism, non-sexism and constitutional supremacy. It defines the country's symbols such as the flag and national anthem, and specifies its official languages and principles that should inform the government’s language policy.
Click here to read the Founding Provisions
Bill of Rights
Lucwebu lwemalungelo eluntfu
Mmuso wa mohlakanelwa
Regering van samewerking
The President and National Executive
MoPoresidente le Khuduthamaga ya Bosetshaba
MoPresidente le Lekgotla la naha la Phethahatso
The National Executive consists of the President, the Deputy President and ministers. The President can exercise no power not conferred by law and the exercise of that power must be rational, which has been interpreted by legal experts to mean that the President must act rationally when appointing or dismissing members of Cabinet.
This chapter sets out the makeup of provincial legislatures and executives and their powers. It also sets out the areas over which both the national government and the provincial government may make laws and states what happens if these laws contradict each other. This chapter also deals with the drafting of provincial constitutions.
This chapter describes the status, powers, functions and composition of local government/municipalities. It explains the makeup of local government, its powers and functions. Local governments make decisions and laws for their municipal areas. Municipal councils carry out the executive and legislative functions of local government.
Courts and administration of justice
Amakhotho nokulawulwa kobulungiswa
Tikhoto na mafambiselo ya vululami
State institutions supporting constitutional democracy
Staatsinstellings ter ondersteuning van
Izikhungo zombuso ezeseka umththosisekelo
Chapter 9 of the Constitution establishes a number of state institutions tasked with supporting our constitutional democracy. The task of these institutions is to promote and protect those rights within the Bill of Rights which fall within their particular area. These bodies are autonomous and other state departments are expressly charged with assisting and protecting them to ensure their independence, impartiality, dignity and effectiveness.
Taolo ya merero ya setshaba
Ditshebeletso tsa tshireletso